Organizational Influences and Project Life Cycle

Organizational Influences
   a) Organizational Structure

  • The Organizational structure sets the level of authority, roles and responsibilities and the reporting structure within the project
  • Organizations are structured into one of six models, the organization structure of which will affect the project in some aspect
  • Project manager’s authority varies based on the type of organizational structure
  • Apart from five models in the adjacent diagram, sixth one is Composite Organizational Structure

b) Organizational Communications:

  • Important factor in project success in the face of globalization
  • Email,texting,instant messaging, social media, video and web conference etc.

Organization Structure - Functional
Functional organizations are made up of units or division based on the types of business and their associated responsibility.
Such Organizations are grouped by areas of specialization within different functional areas (e.g. accounting,marketing and manufacturing)

Organization Structure - Projectized
1. Organizations that derive revenue from performing projects for others
2. Project Manager has full control of project

Organization Structure - Matrix
Mix  of Functional and Projectized organizations

Organization Structure – Weak Matrix

  • Weak matrix structures map closely to a functional structure
  • Project team may come from different departments, but the project manager reports directly to a specific functional manager


Organization Matrix – Balanced Matrix

  • A balanced matrix structure has many of the same attributes as a weak matrix, but the project manager has more time and power regarding the project
  • A balanced matrix has time-accountability issues for all the project team members since their functional managers will want reports on their time spent on the object

Organizational Structure - Strong Matrix

  • In a strong matrix organization, many of the same attributes for the project team exists,but the project manager gains the power and time when it comes to project work
  • The Project team may also have more time available for the project even though they may come from different departments

Organization Structure - Composite
In Composite organization, a special project is created that consists of talent from many different departments. Such project teams report directly to a project manager and will work on high-priority project for its duration.


Project life cycle

  • A project life cycle is the series of phases that a project passes through from its initiation to its closure
  • All projects go through into phases, and all projects, large or small, have a similar life cycle structure
  • Life cycles helps in determining work to be completed in each phase of the project

Predictive Life Cycles
e.g. a construction project will typically be managed using predictiveapproach undergoing life cycles of feasibility,planning,design,production, turnover and start-up.


Iterative and Incremental Life Cycles

  • In these types of project life cycles the project phases ( also called iteration ) intentionally repeat one or more project activities as the project team understanding of the product increases
  • Iterations develops the project, product through a series of repeated cycle while increments successively add to the functionality of the product
  • Iterations may be performed in a sequentially or overlapping fashion
  • Future iterations may enhance earlier deliverable or may create new ones.
  • Incremental delivers a complete, usable portion of product for each iteration
  • With iterative, the complete concept is built in successive levels of detail to create the end result
  • Often Large and complex project are executed in iterative fashion to reduce risk by allowing the team to incorporate feedback and less learned between iterations

Adaptive Life Cycles

  • Also known as Change-driven or agile method
  • They intend to respond to high levels of change and ongoing stakeholder involvement
  • They are also iterative and incremental but difference here is that the iterations are rapid (2-4 weeks ) and fixed in time and cost
  • Product backlog: Here the overall project scope is decomposed into set of requirements and work to be performed
  • Adaptive method is preferred when requirements and scope are difficult to define in advance or when project is dealing with a rapidly changing environment, or when it is possible to define small incremental improvements that will deliver value to the stakeholders